The term ‘free-range’ is widely used to market and sell eggs. But the term itself has been the subject of a whole heap of marketing.
As consumers we are led to believe that free-range means cruelty-free. Sadly this just isn’t true. Scroll down to read why…
Hens destined for free-range farms begin their lives in hatcheries
Hatcheries are factories where chickens’ eggs are intensively incubated and hatched, and, regardless of where the chicks end up, all their lives begin here. After hatching, male and female chicks are separated as only the female chicks will grow up to lay eggs. Because they cannot lay eggs, male chicks are of no use to the egg industry. They are killed, therefore on their first day of life. The most common methods of slaughter are gassing, suffocating, crushing, or grinding alive.
Male chicks in garbage bag, about to be suffocated to death. Image courtesy of Animal Equality.
Male chicks inevitably make up a significant number of all hatched eggs, and we can only guess how many hundred million are killed this way every year as no one deems their short lives important enough to record. The production of all eggs, free-range or not, begins with violence.
Free-range hens are still destined for an early grave
Egg production peaks when a hen is around one to two years of age. When she is no longer productive enough for a farm’s needs she is usually killed for low-grade meat, far earlier than her natural life span of around seven or eight years*. Free-range hens are still regarded as ‘egg producing machines’, and are slaughtered as soon as they cease to be profitable.
*This is an acknowledged average lifespan for a chicken. Chickens are so badly treated that even rescued chickens tend to die young, due to illness and disease contracted in their early months and years on farms, or as a result of the conditions they were forced to endure. It has been reported that some chickens, when allowed to live and grow naturally have lived up to 13 years of age.
Free-range hens are still kept in overcrowded barns
The reality for free-range hens is very different to what the adverts tell us. Almost all are still kept in huge flocks in large crowded barns, being let outside for parts of the day, weather permitting.
These barns have a stocking density of up to four hens per square metre. When you consider that a caged hen has the equivalent of one standard iPad’s worth of space, the extra pennies you spend on buying free-range eggs could only mean a few, extra square centimetres for the chicken who made them.
Many of the hens never go outside
Free-range chickens. Image by Jo-Anne McArthur. Many of the chickens never go outside
Pop-holes are the exits provided in barns to allow free-range hens to get outside. Many barns don’t have enough, and the exits are often blocked by dominant hens asserting the pecking order. On average, less than 10 per cent of free-range chickens will be outside at any given time. What’s more, some never go outside at all.
Aggression and feather-pecking. The answer? Mutilation.
Overcrowding in the free-range system leads to the same problems of aggression and feather-pecking that we see in cage and barn systems of egg production. This is caused by frustration and stress as the chickens compete for space. As a result, free-range birds still have the end of their beak cut off when they are one-day-old, just like caged birds.
The slaughter process is the same for all the animals
Whether a ‘free-range’ hen or a caged bird, the slaughter process is the same for all the animals. In the UK, chickens are either gassed to death or they are hung upside down by their legs while conscious, dragged through a water bath that is intended to stun them, and their throats are cut.
Watch Animal Equality‘s investigation into chicken hatcheries (video published November 2015):
Watch Sky News and Viva!‘s undercover report on UK free-range egg producer, The Happy Egg Company:
Watch our undercover video on a UK free-range egg farm:
PAGE UPDATED MAY 2020